Stare decisis allows judges to ensure fairness and consistency in their decisions, noomtah, Flaticon. Once you move in one direction, you will continue like this until something stops you. Similarly, stare decisis is the principle that moves the legal system in the same direction. It`s always possible to set a precedent, but it can take a lot of effort to stop like a car moving at 60 miles per hour. The most recent reversal of a major precedent occurred in June 2022, when the U.S. Supreme Court struck down Roe v. Wade. This landmark case first set a precedent that abortion rights were a woman`s constitutional right, and it remains to be seen what impact this decision will have on similar future cases and the broader abortion rights debate. Res judicata is a Latin term meaning “a decided question”. It is a legal doctrine that ensures that the same case cannot be heard several times. This doctrine prevents the second litigation of a claim that has already been tried in the past, and the court uses it to refuse to reconsider a common law and civil law case. It also means that Ohio`s lower courts within the same court system would cite this case as a precedent because it was decided by the Ohio Supreme Court, which has superior jurisdiction (vertical stare decisis). However, lower courts in other states are not required to abide by this precedent because they do not fall under the jurisdiction of the Ohio Supreme Court.
Stare decisis is the doctrine that courts respect precedents in their decisions. Stare decisis means “to stick to things decided” in Latin. Stare decisis, (Latin: “leave the decision”), in Anglo-American law, that a question that has already been considered and answered by a court must elicit the same answer each time the same question is brought before the court. The principle is more strictly adhered to in England than in the United States. Since no court decision can be universally applicable, in practice courts often have to decide that an earlier decision is not applicable to a particular case, even if the facts and issues appear very similar. The strict application of stare decisis can lead to rigidity and legal division of hair, while too much flexibility can lead to legal uncertainty. Stare decisis, Latin for sticking to things decided,1FootnoteThe full Latin expression is stare decisis et non quieta movere – hold on to the matter and do not disturb the peace. See James C.
Rehnquist, Note, The Power That Shall Be Vested in a Precedent: Stare Decisis, The Constitution, and the Supreme Court, 66 B.U. L. Rev. 345, 347 (1986). is a legal doctrine according to which a court follows the principles, rules or standards of its previous decisions (or decisions of higher courts) when deciding a case with arguably similar facts.2FootnoteStare Decisis, Black`s Law Dictionary 1626 (10th edition 2014) (definition of stare decisis as a precedential doctrine that a court must follow previous judicial decisions when the same points recur in a dispute); Id. to 1366 (precedent defined as a decided case providing a basis for determining subsequent cases involving similar facts or issues). This essay does not examine the Supreme Court`s dependence on state or foreign court precedents. Nor does it examine, as the Court held, whether a particular sentence of an opinion constitutes a binding obligation necessary for the purposes of stare decisis or, on the contrary, a non-binding obiter dictum. See generally Obiter dictum, Black`s Law Dictionary 1177 (9th ed.
2009) (obiter dictum definition as a judicial opinion issued when a judicial opinion is issued, but unnecessary for the decision on the merits and therefore not precedent (although it may be considered convincing)). The doctrine of stare decisis has horizontal and vertical aspects. A court that adheres to the principle of horizontal stare decisis will follow its own previous decisions, except in exceptional circumstances (p. e.g., the Supreme Court follows a precedent unless it has become too difficult for the lower courts to apply it).3FootnoteHorizontal stare decisis, Black`s Law Dictionary 1537 (10th edition 2014) (Definition of horizontal stare decisis as a doctrine, which a court. must comply with its own previous decisions, unless it finds compelling reasons to override). In contrast, vertical stare decisis requires lower courts to strictly follow the decisions of higher courts in the same jurisdiction (for example, a federal appellate court must follow U.S. decisions). Supreme Court, Federal Supreme Court of Last Resort).4FootnoteSee id. (Definition of vertical stare decisis as the doctrine that a court must strictly follow the decisions of the higher courts of the same jurisdiction).
Stare decisis prevents judges from being perceived as biased by the public. Stare decisis is important because it shapes how courts interpret and enforce the law. Ideally, legislators make laws as clear as possible, but in reality, it is difficult to envision all possible scenarios in which a law can be enforced. Some laws may contradict other laws or even be unconstitutional (as in, contradict the United States Constitution).